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My horse doesn't sweat...why and what can I do?
The clinical condition where horses lose the ability to sweat in response to an appropriate stimulus is called anhidrosis. Anhidrosis is seen most commonly in horses stabled in hot, humid climates most often in the Southern United States. The estimated prevalence in the United States between 6-20%. This condition can have dramatic effects on the use and performance of horses.
Sweat is the primary mechanism by which horses cool their bodies. A horse in work will dissipate almost ¾ of his metabolic heat production with sweat. In hot, humid climates the vapor pressure in the air retards the evaporation of moisture from the horse’s skin and thus impairs the evaporative cooling mechanism. These horses can lose up to 45L of sweat per day and as much as 12% of their body weight. The sweat not only contains moisture, but valuable electrolytes as well. When a horse loses the ability to cool himself, core body temperature can rise to a dangerously high level. Horses may display depression, poor performance, rapid breathing, hair loss and a dry hair coat. Because of their inability to sweat appropriately, horses with anhidrosis are susceptible to heat stroke and life threatening hyperthermia.
There is no associated age, breed or sex of horse that is affected by anhidrosis. This condition is often seen in horses which are moved from temperate climates to more hot and humid ones, but it is also present in horses native to the region in which they are affected.
Sweat glands in horses are controlled by beta-adrenergic receptors. There is an endocrine and a neural component. Suggested causes of anhidrosis include either a lack of appropriate receptors to stimulate the sweat response, or perhaps the receptors exist, but they are refractory to stimulation. There is evidence to demonstrate actual histological differences between the sweat glands of normal horses and those affected by anhidrosis. In affected horses, secretory cells of sweat glands have a flattened appearance with a markedly thickened basal lamina in comparison to normal horses. The proportion of abnormal cells increases with the degree to which the horse is affected.
Clinical signs usually begin with rapid breathing, flared nostrils and a fever. The skin will become hot and dry to the touch. These horses often maintain an appropriate heart rate and drink less water. If hyperthermia develops collapse and sudden death may occur. In chronically affected horses the skin may become dry and scaly with subsequent hair loss. These horses may retain the ability to sweat under their jaw, at the base of their ears and around their perineum, but the classic pattern of sweat along the neck and chest will be severely decreased or lost altogether.
If you recognize these clinical signs in your horse your veterinarian can perform a test to confirm the diagnosis. He or she can administer an intradermal injection of epinephrine or terbutaline. A normal horse will start sweating, horses with anhidrosis will either not sweat or have a delayed response.
Unfortunately there is no long term cure for anhidrosis. These horses do best if they are moved to a cooler climate and if their exercise programs are modified to prevent overexertion. If moving the horse to a cooler climate is not an option, other strategies can be implemented. Management considerations for horses with anhidrosis include fans, air conditioning and access to shade. Supplementation of electrolytes may be beneficial, but it is not considered an appropriate cure for this condition. Hyperhydration of horses prior to exercise has been shown to be of little benefit and can actually disrupt the horse’s appropriate acid-base balance. In an acute episode a horse should be moved into the shade and cold hosed. A veterinarian should be contacted immediately to prevent the development of life threatening hyperthermia.
If you have any questions regarding anhidrosis or other medical conditions in horses, please consult with your veterinarian or any of the veterinarians at New England Equine Medical & Surgical Center.
Elizabeth (Betsy) Lordan, DVM
Jacqueline Bartol, DVM, DACVIM
Hillside Meadows’ High School and Middle School Equestrians Ride to IEA National Championships in Oklahoma City
GRAFTON -Monika Ernenwein and Cara SanFratello both of Grafton compete in Oklahoma City for the IEA National Finals.
Oklahoma, July 1, 2013- 150 of the nation's leading middle school and high school equestrians competed at the Oklahoma State Fairgrounds in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, June 27-29, 2013. The Interscholastic Equestrian Association (IEA) student-riders competed in the Western discipline during the National Reining Horse Association (NRHA) Derby. The NRHA and the National Reining Horse Youth Association (NRHyA) are alliance partners of the IEA and sponsored the event. The finalists represented 33 teams from seven zones throughout the United States. Individuals and teams participated in multiple competitions during the 2012-2013 regular season shows and zone finals to qualify for the IEA National Finals competition.
Riders competed in reining and horsemanship contests. The IEA format requires that riders compete in unfamiliar tack on unfamiliar mounts; therefore, each rider draws a horse the day of competition and enters the show arena with no opportunity to familiarize themselves with their mount.
Monika Ernenwein and Cara SanFratello are members of Grafton’s Hillside Meadows Equestrian Center’s IEA team coached by Amber Woodruff. Monika Ernenwein finish 4th in the nation for the High School Varsity Open Reining-Individual erning her a $500 scholarship, while Cara SanFratello finished 10th in the Middle School Future Intermediate Horsemanship -Individual.
Hillside Meadows is now recruiting middle school and high school students for both their western and hunt seat IEA teams. More information about Hilside Meadows and their IEA teams can be found at www.hillside-meadows.com and further information about the Interscholastic Equestrian Association can be found at www.rideiea.com.
Causes of Nose Bleeds (Epistaxis) in Equines
Epistaxis is defined as the presence of blood in the external nares. The amount of blood present may range from small flecks in the normal nasal discharge to large volumes flowing from both nostrils. Blood in the external nares can originate from one or more of a variety of structures. These can include the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, guttural pouch, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, or lungs. Bleeding in these structures can be caused by a primary disease or mucosal damage.
Bleeding associated with the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses usually has blood coming from only one nostril and is spontaneous in nature. The mucosa in the nasal cavity is highly vascularized and can bleed easily due to foreign bodies, fungal infections, or cancer. Theses disease processes usually cause only a small amount of bleeding that occurs intermittently. Trauma is another common reason for mucosal bleeding in the nasal cavity. This can be caused by veterinarians when a nasogastric tube or endoscope is placed in the horses nasal passage. This at times can cause mild to profuse hemorrhage. Erosive diseases that affect the paranasal sinuses of horses commonly cause a unilateral, blood tinged nasal discharge. An ethmoid hematoma is an example of this.
Another source of bleeding while the horse is at rest is the guttural pouch. The horse has a guttural pouch on each side of its pharynx. The guttural pouch is a diverticulum of the Eustachian tube that runs from the horses inner ear to its pharynx. Many important nerves and the internal carotid artery run through this anatomic structure. Infections can occur in this area especially those fungal in nature. Fungal plaques may cause erosion of the carotid artery. The horse will initially experience several episodes of minor hemorrhage with fresh blood coming from one nostril that ultimately leads to large volumes of blood gushing from both nostrils.
Most commonly epistaxis occurs bilaterally immediately after strenuous exercise in horses. This is cause by Exercise Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage (EIPH). This is most commonly recognized in Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses. This is likely caused by rupture of small capillaries in the lung alveoli. With normal breathing the blood will travel up the trachea where some may be swallowed and some may drain out the nasal passage resulting in epistaxis. Other less common causes of post exercise pulmonary hemorrhage in horses include a pulmonary abscess or pleuropneumonia.
There are many other uncommon causes of epistaxis in horses including lesions in the oral cavity, pharynx or larynx caused by infectious disease or foreign bodies. Also uncommon are a variety of inherited and acquired coagulation disorders manifesting in epistaxis.
If your horse exhibits signs of epistaxis it is important to have him evaluated by your veterinarian. This is especially true if the bleeding is persistent, severe in nature, or your horse is displaying signs of respiratory distress. Evaluation of your horse will include a careful physical exam including auscultation of the lungs and trachea. An oral exam may also be warranted. Most often an endoscopy of the upper airway is performed when available to visualize all structures in the nasal cavity, larynx, pharynx, guttural pouch, and trachea.
If you have any further questions or would like more information about epistaxis in horses, contact your veterinarian or one of the veterinarians at New England Equine Medical & Surgical Center.
Ashley Taylor, DVM
Jacqueline Bartol, DVM, DACVIM
If you or your horse has been outside in the tall grass lately, you've likely seen some ticks on you or your pets. If you have been lucky enough not to see any yet - the season is here and you should know what the latest news is on Lyme Disease.
Lyme Disease is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi that completes it's life cycle through ixodid ticks (I. scapularis in the eastern U.S. and I. pacificus in the western U.S.). These ticks transmit the bacteria while taking a blood meal and require prolonged attachment (>24 hours). New research has determined that the prolonged time may be needed to down regulate surface proteins (OspA) on the bacteria which will allow for infection to take place. Other identified surface proteins have been helpful in determining infection and levels of infection (ex: C6 protein, OspC, Osp F).
SIGNALMENT / SYMPTOMS:
The signs of clinical Lyme Disease are often difficult to identify and the high prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi makes test results difficult to interpret and definitive diagnosis complicated. Typical signs can include shifting limb lameness, mild fevers, sensitivity to touch or "hypersensitivity", muscle soreness, attitude changes, decreased appetite and lethargy. Affected horses may show some, all or none of these symptoms. In humans, joint effusion has been noted, but this symptom does not appear to affect horses commonly. In horses with especially high titers, neurologic signs may also be present, including muscle wasting, lumbar pain and/or ataxia.
Diagnosis of Lyme Disease can be a difficult task and should be discussed in depth with your veterinarian. Both a combination of signs and serology (bloodwork) can help in differentiating chronic exposure with acute infection. Previously, Western Blot and ELISA performed together have been the testing of choice. There is a newer test called the Lyme Multiplex that tests for antibodies to the surface proteins OspA, OspC and OspF and gives a quantitative number. This is helpful in monitoring changes over time as well as determining acute vs. chronic infection. These testing methods are minimally invasive and only require an evaluation of your horse by a veterinarian and a blood draw. The blood test is submitted to a laboratory and results are typically available in 5-7 days.
The most commonly used drugs for treatment of Lyme disease have been doxycycline, (an oral formulation) and oxytetracycline (an intravenous formulation). Both of these drugs are in the tetracycline family. A newer, more expensive, but potentially more effective oral antibiotic is minocycline. The ability for this tetracycline to be absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and the availability of the drug have made it grow in popularity. The oral forms of tetracycline are easily administered at home, but often require longer treatment durations (1-2 months). The intravenous form of tetracycline must be administered by a veterinarian and often through an IV catheter for prolonged treatment. Oxytetracycline is given twice a day for 1-3 weeks. Horses treated with intravenous therapy should have their kidney values monitored due to the drug's uncommon, but potential side effect of kidney damage. Treated horses should be re-evaluated and re-tested 1-2 months after completing antibiotics to assess degree of improvement and if additional or more aggressive treatment is needed.
Prevention consists of environmental control, early antibiotic treatment and potentially, vaccination. Environmental control consists of limiting tick exposure. Horses is high risk areas should be checked every 24 hours and any ticks present should be removed. Paddocks should be groomed and mowed regularly to prevent overgrowth and long grasses (prime tick living area). Several insecticidal spays are available, but can be costly in horses and effectiveness is varied. Tick exposure is most common in the late summer, fall, and early winter. The only available vaccination is currently only approved for use in dogs, but can be used off-label in horses on a case-by-case basis. Efficacy is unknown at this time, but may be beneficial in horses with high risk. Prevention techniques should be discussed with a veterinarian in your area that is knowledgeable of your geographical Lyme Disease prevalence.
If you have any questions regarding Lyme disease please contact your veterinarian or the veterinarians at New England Equine Medical & Surgical Center.
Kimberly Brothwell, DVM
Jacqueline Bartol, DVM, DACVIM
New England Equine Medical and Surgical Center
Silver Oak Jumper Tournament Gearing Up for August Debut
For Immediate Release for Phelps Media Group, Inc. International
Releases and High-Res Photos Available at PhelpsMediaGroup.com
Media Contact: Mason Phelps
Phelps Media Group, Inc. International
phone 561.753.3389 fax 561.753.3386
The "Rider's Horse Show" Returns on
Hampton Falls, NH - May 20, 2013 - Excitement is building for the inaugural Silver Oak Jumper Tournament as the electrifying sport of show jumping is set to make a return to the Silver Oak Equestrian Center at 340 Exeter Road in Hampton Falls, NH on August 7-11, 2013.
The all jumper show is expected to draw a world-class line-up of stars from the United States and Canada and entries from across the globe. The event will offer divisions for children, adults, juniors and amateurs in addition to a big money international open jumper division.
The Prize List for the Silver Oak Jumper Tournament is available here:
The Children's Wish Foundation International takes center stage as the show's much loved charity.
"We have heard from many of the nation's best riders who have told us that they intend to be here and we're also delighted that a number of international competitors, some from as far away as Greece, are also making the trip to New Hampshire," said Show Chairman, Jeffery Papows.
"We are focusing on a number of exciting entertainment attractions too. We know that the large crowds of enthusiastic supporters that come to Silver Oak will get to see a great show."Silver Oak Equestrian Center, located right off Route 95 less than 50 miles from Boston, has built a reputation as one of the leading equestrian sports venues in New England. Its 150-acre facility is dedicated to providing a first-class experience for equestrian competitors and spectators alike. Silver Oak's unique grounds offer one of the country s largest grass Grand Prix and Derby fields along with four all-weather rings featuring world-class GGT footing."This is going to be a first-class event and a great facility and we're going to showcase the sport of show jumping the way it should be," Papows added.
The show is managed by Mike Belisle, whose resume includes the Winter Equestrian Festival, the Washington International Horse Show, Ox Ridge, the Boston Jumper Classic and the Angelstone Tournament in Ontario, Canada.
Germany's Olaf Petersen, Jr., has been named to design the courses for the Silver Oak Tournament. Petersen, one of the world's most popular and respected builders, has worked the world's best shows, including the 2004 Athens Olympic Games and the North American Junior and Young Rider Championships.
The Silver Oak Jumper Tournament is proud to align itself with the Children's Wish Foundation International as our feature charity. Show management is thrilled to bring world class competition and at the same time, play some small part in making the wishes of unfortunate children fighting serious illness dreams a reality.
SILVER OAK JUMPER TOURNAMENT 2013 FAST FACTS
Now under new management, Olympic caliber Show Jumping is set to return to Hampton Falls, NH from August 7 - August 11, 2013 for the Silver Oak Jumper Tournament. We look forward to beginning a new era as we bring world-class competition and exciting entertainment to Hampton Falls. Equestrian Estate Planning Group will be title sponsor of the $75,000 Grand Prix. The show benefits the Children's Wish Foundation International
Silver Oak Equestrian Center
340 Exeter Road
Hampton Falls, NH 02844
Take Exit Route 101 West, pay toll
Follow 101W and take Exit 12
Turn left of the exit and follow to the end of the road
Turn right onto Route 27/111 W-Hampton Road
Travel one mile and turn left on Route 88, Hampton Falls Road
Follow for two miles
Silver Oak Equestrian Center is on the right
Take Exit 7, Route 101E
Take Exit 11, Route 108S
Merge onto Route 108, Portsmouth Avenue
Turn left onto Route 88-Holland Way
Turn right onto Route 27/111, High Street
Turn left onto Route 88, Hampton Falls Road
Follow for two miles
Silver Oak Equestrian Center is on the right
Silver Oak Equestrian Center
340 Exeter Road Hampton Falls, New Hampshire
Vendors offering equestrian equipment, apparel, jewelry and home furnishings will be located on the grounds at the Silver Oak Jumper Tournament
Caren Bayne, Director of Sponsorship
Telephone: (617) 678-3677
VIP Table Sales and Ticket Information:
Telephone: (203) 605-1935
Horse Show Secretary:
John & Pam Rush
Rush Management, Inc.
2344 Laurel Road
Jacksonville, FL 32207-4139
Caren Bayne, Director of Sponsorship
Telephone: (617) 678-3677
The Exeter Inn and Epoch Restaurant
90 Front Street
Exeter, New Hampshire 03833
(603) 778-8757 fax
Fairfield Inn & Suites Portsmouth Exeter
138 Portsmouth Avenue
Exeter, NH 03833
Book King at Fairfield Inn & Suites Portsmouth Exeter for 174 per night
Book dbdb at Fairfield Inn & Suites Portsmouth Exeter for 189 per night
Hampton Inn & Suites Exeter
59 Portsmouth Avenue
Exeter, New Hampshire
Silver Oak Jumper Tournament Media Contact:
Phelps Media Group, Inc.
12230 Forest Hill Blvd.
Wellington, FL 33414
Happenings at Hillside Meadows
May 10, 2013
We have a lot of exciting things going on Hillside Meadows this summer! First off, we have had a lot of changes at our facility. After acquiring another stable on property we now have two boarder barns and one school barn stocked with great mentors and show horses. We have openings for boarding and we are offering a summer promotion. Sign a contract with us this summer and receive your first month of weekly lessons free. Refer a friend to our stable and receive 4 lessons free, regardless if you are a current client or a new customer. All barns are under the same management, and the care of our wonderful staff. We offer beautiful new stalls, quality bedding, beautiful hay four times a day, all day or half day turnout on grass or sand, two attached indoors and two large outdoors, also we have access to miles of trails right off our property. Come see why we are Grafton’s hidden gem, tucked away on top of George Hill.
We are hosting a series of cow sorting and versatility events all summer, dates and sign ups on our website! The popular RFD-TV host of Horse Master, Julie Goodnight is coming to host a clinic June 29th-30th , check online to buy spectator tickets. We are very excited now to wish our Western IEA team the best of luck at Zones this upcoming weekend, following what has been an almost undefeated season. Signups for our championship Huntseat and Western IEA teams begin this summer! We are also proud to be working with the Grafton Recreation department this summer for our Horse Lovers Program for children.
All and all we are growing more and more each day. The group of people at our barn are vivacious and down to earth, versatile and most of all, happy! We are proud to offer a family environment for huntseat and western riders a like, as most of us ride multiple disciplines. Whether you’re a beginner or advanced rider, our team of instructors can get you where you want to go. Our relationship with the wonderful trainers and owner of Grazing Fields out of Buzzards Bay means that we can offer you the training and showing experience that you want, without the big price tag. You’d be surprised what we have to offer in your own backyard. On behalf of all the staff, the owner, Ron Ernenwien and my two assistant managers, Leah Shedd and Amanda Dorherty we hope you’ll come check us out soon!
Hillside Meadows Equestrian Center